Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. General definitions of music include common elements such as pitch which governs melody and harmony , rhythm and its associated concepts tempo , meter , and articulation , dynamics loudness and softness , and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound. Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping ; there are solely instrumental pieces , solely vocal pieces such as songs without instrumental accompaniment and pieces that combine singing and instruments. In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form or cultural activity include the creation of works of music songs , tunes, symphonies , and so on , the criticism of music , the study of the history of music , and the aesthetic examination of music. Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies.
Music - Wikipedia
Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces according to pseudo-random group assignment as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors HIMAB , and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect.
Amateur Art Association of Vojvodina had the honour to host the 11th annual Amateo conference, in Novi Sad, from June In the year when the city of Novi Sad is the European capital of Youth, attendees had the chance to open many questions and to share many good examples.